Ford’s 2.0/2.3/2.5 litre "Lima" engine family
These motors are commonly referred to as either the Lima or simply the 2.X SOHC (Single Over Head Cam) engines. They started life based on the German designed 2.0 EAO Sport motors that were first introduced to this country in the Mercury Capri’s from the early 70’s. They share nothing with the 2.3-2.5 litre HSC motors that were offered in the passenger car line from ’84-’91. Initially the 2.3 was supposed to be designed so that the 2.0 EAO parts would interchange, but due to different manufacturing processes it was not feasable) according to Ford, a couple of easy ways to tell if you have a 2.0L EAO engine, or a 2.0/2.3/2/5L lima engine is that the 2.0 EAO engine has 10 valve cover bolts while the Lima engine has only 8 valve cover bolts, and the distributor is in front of the number 1 intake port on the EAO engine, while the distributor is under the number 1 intake port on the Lima engine. The 2.3 first debuted in the 1974 Pinto using a progressive 2Bbl Webber/Holley carb and a points distributor. In ’75 they were upgraded to a Duraspark ignition system. They remained unchanged until about ’81 when the intake ports were changed from an oval to a D shape (flat floor). The 2.0/2.3 litre versions that were offered in Rangers starting in ’83 used a different head having four evenly spaced round h***s of equal size. A 2.0 litre 1-bbl carbed version was offered in Rangers from ’83-’85, and in ’87-’88 with a 2-bbl in some parts of the US, Canada and Mexico. EFI was added to the engines in ’85. In 89 Rangers (91 in Mustangs) the 2.3 was changed to a DIS (Distributorless Ignition System) ignition utilizing a new 8-plug head. This head had larger evenly spaced D-shaped intake ports and was used until the end of production of the 2.5 in ‘01. The 2.5 litre version was only offered from ‘98 To ’01, when the engine was replaced by a 2.3 litre DOHC Duratec based engine.
In ’79-‘81 a high compression drawthru carb’ed turbo version of the 2.3 was offered. In ’83-‘88 a lower compression EFI turbo version was offered in T-birds, Cougars, Mustang SVOs and Merkur XR4Ti’s (through ’89).
Some of the changes to the motor over the years were:
Rear main seal changed from a two piece to a one piece design in ’86.
Roller cams were installed from ’88 on in Rangers and ’91 on in Mustangs.
Crankshaft main journal sizes were reduced starting in ’88.
CPS (Cam Position Sensor) was added starting in ’95 (’94 in California). At this time Ford changed to a 104-pin computer (it was a 60-pin) and moved the DIS functions into the computer, previously the DIS system had a TFI module as a separate unit mounted on the front of the intake manifold.
Major engine specs are
.......................................2.0........ .2.3 Early....2.3 Late.....2.5
Bore Spacing...................4.173........4.173...... ...4.173......4.173
Main Journal Dia..............2.3986......2.3986.......2.2055.. ....2.2055
Rod Journal Dia...............2.0468......2.0468.......2.0468. ....2.0468
Con. Rod Length..............5.2047......5.2047.......5.204 7.....5.457
Crank Center to deck.......8.368........8.368.........8.368......8 .368
Piston pin height...............1.583........1.583.........1. 583.....1.2105
Differences between major engine parts are as follows:
2.0 is an underbored 2.3, with the exception of the bore the blocks are identical to all 2.3’s (note the ranger 2.0 block can not be bored out to accept a 2.3 pistons).
’75-’88 2.3’s are interchangeable.
’89-’94 same as ’83-’88 2.3’s but have a smaller main journal saddle, the oil pan seal
surface was changed in ‘87 to eliminate the 4 piece seal and h***s were added in the front to bolt on the DIS’s crank trigger assembly.
’95-‘01 similar to the ’89-‘95’s but a Cam Position Sensor was added behind the aux sprocket, the h*** for the distributor was eliminated and the oil pump was moved in place of the aux. shaft itself.
Turbo blocks are identical to the ’83-’88 Ranger blocks but have an additional boss w/ a h*** threaded in the pass. side about ½ way back that provides a place to drain the lubricating oil back into the engine from the turbo.
2.0 and early 2.3 Lima cranks are identical.
Late 2.3 Lima cranks have smaller main journals.
2.5 Lima cranks are identical to 2.3 Lima except they have a longer stroke.
2.0 and 2.3 (including turbo) rods are identical up through at least ’94. In fact they still have the original D4 (’74) casting number on them.
The 2.0 pistons are unique and don’t interchange.
The 2.3 pistons are all the same excluding the turbo versions, which were forged. Low compression (8.0-1) in the ’83-‘88’s and high compression (9.0-1) in the ’79-‘81’s.
The 2.5 pistons are similar to the 2.3’s but have a different wrist pin height.
All 2.0/2.3/2.5 heads will physically bolt in place of each other, they all have similar exhaust port shape and placement. All cams are interchangeable as long as they are used with the proper followers. Later model ('95 and newer) roller cam followers cannot be easily swapped onto an older head as the valve stem size was reduced in the newer heads and matching slot in the follower was reduced, the 83-88 2.0 carburated Ranger engine and 2.3 carburated Ranger engines have the same small round intake ports spaced evenly apart, they differ from each other in their valve sizes though.
There are several variations on the 2.3 heads though they break down into 4 distinct types:
1. Passenger car oval port heads-’74-’80 Mustang, Pinto, Fairmont, Bobcat, etc.
2. Passenger car D-port head-’81-’95? T-bird, Mustang, Etc.
3. Truck round port- ’83-’88 carburated Ranger
4. Truck D-port- ’89-’01 Ranger. The '89-'94's and '95-'01's have different combustion chambers and ports.
Do not make the intake ports larger on the 2.0 EAO, or 2.3 Lima with the oval ports as they are all ready too big for the size of the engine which is why in 1981 they went to the d-port intake port, on the 2.0 EAO you can actually fill the bottom of the intake port with a 1/4 inch of epoxy (or your favorite filler) making it a d-port, you will not lose any airflow (cfm) but you will drasticaly increase port velosity which = more power.
'88-'94 Ranger Roller cam .215" lift at lobe. Lobe is .675 wide
Follower's roller diameter is .900"
'95-'01 Ranger Roller cam .215" lift at lobe. Lobe is .510 wide
Follower's roller diameter is .900"
Head gasket for turbo or any Lima engine (0-27psi)- Fel-pro #1035
Recommended Valve Seals (Good for N/A too)
Added on 1/15/2011
2.3 cylinder head intake ports:
(From top to bottom)
Ranger Round Port
Oval Port combustion chamber.
Ranger Round Port combustion chamber (this is from a 2.0 Ranger) Note the smaller valves.
D-Port combustion chamber.
Cylinder Head Flow Numbers provided by Bo at Boport Racing Heads, http://www.bo-port.com/ (he is also vendor for 2.3 stuff)
D=d-port / T-D= turbo d-port / L-dual= 97-01 dual plug /
E-dual= 88-96 dual plug / Ess-D= Esslinger ported d-port/
inches D T-D Oval Round L-dual E-dual Ess-D ported ARCA
Performance parts vendors.
If you have some additional knowledge that will make this data more precise please post it, Thanks.
Bo at Boport Racing Heads.
for additional information.
Volvo B234F Head Conversion for 2.3L OHC Ford
The cylinder head off a ‘89 - ‘90 Volvo 740GLE B234F engine can be used on the Ford 2.3L OHC short block, commonly seen in a turbo configuration in the 1980’s Turbo Mustangs, SVO Mustangs, Merkur XR4Ti’s, and Thunderbird Turbo Coupes. This is an effort to provide one solution, out of many possible, to clearly guide one through the conversion process. The B234F Volvo engine may have also been available in a '91 940GLE sedan or wagon. Early B234F engines had a mechanical cam belt tensioner. Later ones had a hydraulic tensioner. A head off of either engine will work as described below for this conversion.
In addition to the cylinder head modifications detailed below, intake and exhaust manifolds will have to be constructed as the stock Ford 2.3lt. manifolds will not fit. There was a turbocharged Volvo engine but the manifold is not suitable to this conversion as it places the turbo in the same location as the Ford starter. The head to manifold flanges and the parts of the individual runners containing the injector mounting bosses can be used from the Volvo intake but the runners will have to be angled up to clear the left hand drive brake hardware.
Overview and General Considerations:
Familiarity with every component is the key to success, so direct your attention to the Ford block, Ford and Volvo heads and head gaskets, the engine coolant systems, oil supply systems, fasteners, factory recommended maintenance (especially with regard to the Volvo cam tower sealants), valve train systems and components (including cam gears, belts, tensioners, their relative alignment with each other and the block, and piston-to-valve interference points).
Volvo Engine Overview:
740 Engine four cylinders gasoline engines: N/A 8v - 114 HP, Turbo 8v - 160 HP, N/A 16 valve: 153 HP
Volvo 16v flow (with the stock .430 cam and port matching): 240 cfm [unverified claim]
Esslinger Engineering aluminum head flow (with a .585 cam at 6500 rpm): 260 cfm
Stock Combustion chamber volume = 53cc
Volvo head maintenance: Breakdown of the gasket sealer (used in place of gaskets) on the Volvo 16V cause oil leaks onto the cam tower faces; solution - reapply sealer every 40K-50K mi.
Head fastener info:
head bolts 14mm.
manifold nuts 13mm
support bracket for intake 12mm
timing cover bolts are 10mm and 12mm
water pump pulley 10mm nuts
valve cover 10mm
the best tool for the intake nuts is a ¼" drive ratchet, extension, and 13mm swivel socket
Valves: The 16v is a N/A head and if turbocharged, the valves, especially the exhaust, should be changed. There is room to install larger valves, the stock sizes are 34.5mm intake and 31.5mm exhaust. Oversize valves up to 36mm on the intake and 34.5mm on the exhaust can be used. New cam buckets aren’t needed for the conversion, but can be obtained.
Head Comparison: The Porsche-designed Volvo head, is noticeably shorter than the Ford. Ford’s combustion chambers (and cylinders) are evenly spaced, the Volvo’s are not. The head bolt locations, two of the three oil return h***s, and some of the water passages h***s match exactly and the others can be matched.
Oil: The Ford head receives oil from the rear, the Volvo from the front. Run a line from the pressure side of the pump, from the back of the block, where there’s already a tapped line, to the side (preferably the front) of the Volvo cam tower assembly. The actual cylinder head itself does not require any pressurized oil supply. All of the requirements for pressurized oil supply is confined to the cam tower assembly. The resulting drain back takes place through the lower main cylinder head. The Volvo bucket tappets are hydraulic with no lash adjustment shims. Higher performance cams are available but they may require changing to solid tappet buckets with adjustment shims.
Water passages: Water can be run externally, but many of the water passages already match and are all very close. The water passages in the Volvo head, quite possibly, can just be enlarged to be able to supply the needed water, however cooling at the back of the piston on #4 is less important than matching water passages to the gasket. The downward opening passage in the front of the Volvo head is the water pump bypass; it uses an o-ring between the passage and the pump. Seal the opening and install a connection to the heater core line.
Off the shelf:
Oil feed line: taps, fittings and a -3 pressure line to feed oil to the head from the block feed point. (Custom length)
Cam Sprockets: Volvo, round tooth from 16v made adjustable (vernier)
Timing Belt Tensioner: stock Ford mounted on a plate
Tensioner (2nd pulley) for Timing Belt: Volvo, from 8v motor
Crank Gear: new (round tooth) Ford Ranger crankshaft gear, spaced 5/16" (or 8mm) from block.
Distributor Gear: new (round tooth) Ford Ranger distributor (auxiliary shaft) gear
Water Pump Sprocket (from new Ranger motor)?
Timing Belt: 3.0 Mitsubishi - 25mm wide x 55 7/8 long, pitch - 9.5mm or 3/8"
Gasket, Head: Fel-Pro 1035 (Performance Line) for the Ford 2300
Gaskets, Intake: Fel-Pro MS95263 for the Volvo B234F
Gasket, Exhaust: custom or none
Valves: Racing Engine Valves (REV)
Tensioner mounting plate
Tap and thread the rear oil return passage of the block and install a pipe plug. Rear jackets don’t need to be blocked. Install pistons with custom valve reliefs or cut reliefs into stock pistons.
The front water outlet must be sealed at the bottom and fitted with an outlet opening towards the passenger side. Fill and cc the middle combustion chambers to better match the head gasket (.060). Match the necessary water passages with the Ford gasket. Tap the head to accept an external oil feed. Prepare and machine the block of aluminum, then tig weld to the back of the Volvo head. Appropriately surface and true the head. Install the external oil supply line from the added block to the forward tapped point.
Details of aluminum block attachment:
Dimensions – width of Volvo head x height of Volvo head x (length of ford head - length of Volvo head, sort of)
Details of tensioner mounting plate:
Shape, drill points, mounts points etc.
Install valve gear: Mount the Ford tensioner on a plate, mount the plate on the front of the Volvo head, fit the belt to the tensioner, and confirm all rotating belt parts are on same vertical plane. Belt Routing: A plate goes across the top, front bolt h***s on the Volvo head, which has a locator pin h*** drilled into it for the 8 valve Volvo tensioner. Tensioner bolt comes off of the left passenger side bolt h*** in the head. Verify the intermediate and crank sprockets are spaced appropriately from the block for the belt to run true. Time the motor.
Install accessories, radiator, intercooler, a/c etc.
Cylinder head considerations:
1. Oil feed to the head: run hose from block or remote oil filter directly to the upper head section and plug the Ford block to the head in the left rear corner with an allen plug.
2. Instead of placing a small block of aluminum across the back of the head we will be placing a full length, top to bottom piece of aluminum across the back of the head to guarantee that we do not have any oil/water leaks. An additional oil drain h*** will be drilled into the back of the head since one of the three factory oil drain h***s will be plugged. We were going to also drill an oil supply h*** and supply the factory oil feed h*** with the oil supply, but we have decided against it and we will be running an external line from the outside, through the side of the upper head section, where no water lives, and supply the oil to the internal feeders at a better location in order to supply both sides of the head simultaneously.
Suppliers and Alternative Components
There are a lot of fuel management possibilities out there:
FELPRO/SPEEDPRO SEFI8LO is probably the best for the money,
EEC-Tuner is good on a variety of Ford ECMs (A3M1 is best but the wiring has to be swapped). The wiring kit complete from computer to sensor plugs is readily available at Painless Performance.
Richard Prince is the contact. The modified cam specs are: Advertised duration 268 degrees, duration at 0.050", cam lift 228 degrees. Lift 0.438" Cam lift at TDC 0.070" Intake centerline 109degrees ATDC. Lobe separation angle 112degrees
Stock cams and gears: A$100
Modify cams to specs: A$886
10% tax on $886: A$89
Modify cam gears to vernier: A$300
Subtotal A$1,375 plus shipping, customs, my service fee 10% A$135 import duty to your account
This configuration requires no change to cam buckets
REV can provide larger valves. Also consider using alloy valves and before the swap, also the valve faces could be coated, as well as the outside of the head for a little better heat retention, and the tops of pistons as well. Larger replacement valves: 36 and 34.5; they will require new exhaust seats, the intake will cut out far enough. One possibility: Porsche 928 S4(?), 7mm dia., hyd. Adj., intakes 37mm, exhausts 33mm
3.0 Mitsubishi 25mm w x 55 7/8” l, pitch - 9.5mm or 3/8", Hyundai 29mm wide, Ford 19mm. Use Volvo 8v cam sprockets if a square-tooth belt (like the stock Ford) is desired.
It is possible to use the Davies-Craig electric water pump and not even use a bypass, and use another electric pump for the heater core loop, like Mercedes and BMW are both doing.
It's easier to get the aluminum 2.3 head from Esslinger Engineering. (it will out perform the Volvo head).
2.0 / 2.3 / 2.5L, 5 Speed Transmission info.
The Toyo-Koygo 5 speed, the shifter is 25" back from the front of the bell housing (this is the weakest of the Ford Ranger 5 speeds, mainly found in 1983-1988 year models). The throwout bearing is hydraulicly operated.
The Toyo-Koygo Mazda 5 speed, the shifter is 19" back from the front of the bell housing (stronger than the 5 speed mentioned above, it is found in 1987-2001 Ford Rangers). The throwout bearing is hydraulicly operated. There were 2 versions of this transmission the 1987 and up M50D-R1 the bell housing is part of the main case, while the later version the M50D-R4 is basically the same except the bell housing is removeable.
The Borg-Warner T-5 5 speed, (no picture available) that came in 1984-1993 Ford Mustangs with the 2.3L engine, the shifter is 28" back from the front of the bell housing, the throw out bearing is cable operated. The turbocharged Ford Thunderbird Supercoupe that where T-5 equipped used a throw out bearing that is hydraulicly operated (I am not sure of the distance of the shifter to the front of the bell housing, it could be the same as the Mustang T-5, or it could not, and I am also not sure that you could swap the bell housing from a T-bird T-5 to a mustang 2.3 T-5). More info to come.
Ford duraspark conversion.
Make sure that you have the "blue module" where the wires come out at.
Question by clarky1966:
I have a question about these. I am using a newer 2.3 (95) in an older vehicle with a 94 harness. The 95 has 2 wires for the crank sensor and the 94 has 4 wires. The 94 sensor bolted to the block, the 95 bolts in a different location. The question being is there any fix to make the 94 sensor bolt to the 95 block? I know I can drill and tap the h***s, but I didn't know if there was a wiring fix or possibly and aftermarket sensor that eliminates this problem. The 95 has a gear with a notch missing and the 94 has a ring that has 2 large slots cut out of it that passes between the sensor and disrupts the field. Any help would be appreciated. If any one knows this, you would. Thanks.
Here's the fix for that.
It's pretty self explanitory once you get the front covers off of both engines, there are 3 h***s that mount the crank sensor mount to the block on the early DIS engine, two threaded and one dowel pin, they are 6mm threads and a 6mm dowel pin, you probably won't find one though. Take a 6mm bolt with a long shank and cut it off so the shank was about the length of the dowel in the original engine and just threaded the h*** and red loctited it in place.
To make your template, get a piece of thin cardboard, cut it out in a relative shape to fit in the area needed, you want to use the outer bolt h***s for the cover for reference points so make it big enough to get to those. Start with the h*** for the pin, cut it out in the cardboard first, then take a STRONG pin or something and stab it into the h***s you want to use for reference one at a time, after you stab the h*** in the cardboard cut out the excess so that the correct bolt will fit through then put it back on the engine with the bolt threaded in the h***, this will help in accuracy. Start this process with the outer most cover bolt h***s, do 3 of the cover h***s for good measure, you don't have to do all of them, and then do the other two h***s that need to be drilled and tapped. when you get to the new engine, take a scribe or something to scratch the metal or a sharpie and mark the h***s that need to be drilled and tapped, take a center punch and mark the center as close as you can, then drill a small pilot h*** like 1/16" then drill the correct size h*** for the 6mm tap, at least one of the h***s goes all the way through to the crank case so you will want to be careful, with the front cover off you can catch all of the chips without a problem just use some loctite or thread sealant on the bolts when you put it on. That should cover that part.
You have to use the crank balancer/pulley from a '94 or earlier engine, it'll swap right over. Once you get the sensor mounted and the balancer in place check the crank sensor alignment, take the pulley off (4 bolts with 10mm heads) and rotate the engine, there are some points where you can see both vanes entering the sensor, just make sure they are close to centered, you shouldn't have to to align the sensor after the swap, but it doesn't hurt to check.
Turbo EFI 2.3 info by: PaceRacer50
I read through a lot of the information here on the 2.3 as I use to race a 1986 Mustang SVO. I can give you guys some info on the factory turbo EFI engines that will help out because some of the info here is not right. (Note: the 97 and 88 Thunderbird turbocoupe is very different and the computer & vein meter will not interchange without some re-wiring. These years of Turbocoupes are not included in the information below except in their own section at the end.)
Introduced in 1983 as 145HP in the Mustang, Capri, Thunderbird and Cougar. Same engine was used in the Mekur XR4TI. This engine combination was used through early 1985 with minor changes but the major components remained the same.
Intake was Inline 4 port style.
Turbo was T3 Super 60 series non-water cooled. Two bolt flanged discharge flange.
This turbo is capable of 350hp when properly tuned engine. Excellent turbo other than non-water cooled. Exhaust side was .63AR ratio for all engines. Boost was limited by the waste gate without computer control at 10psi.
Small outlet exhaust manifold was used which frequently crack. Can be ported for extra power on top end to match the manifold to turbo gasket but its a b**** to do and get down inside good.
Fuel Injection was designed by and components provided by Bosch for Ford. Injectors are not interchangeable with the 5.0 GT Mustang engine but are with the CFI throttle body 5.0 engines for higher HP.
Vein Meter is small diameter but the same for all 1983 to early 1985 vehicles including SVO's. Mekur's used the small vein meter through end of production.
1984 saw the introduction of the SVO with 175HP in the "Premium Fuel" mode, 145HP in "Regular Fuel" mode. (a switch was provided on the console to allow the driver to choose which mode he wanted to use).
SVO had the regular discharge flange round hose type outlet on the turbocharger. Also was not watercooled. Still the same T3 super 60 series turbo. Exhaust was still the .63AR ratio. Boost was computer controlled to 12psi in premium fuel mode and 10psi in regular fuel mode. (these are actual readings I took on my 84 SVO)
Intercooler was fitted along with the needed exhaust manifold "U" bracket and two "V" shaped brackets to support it.
Computer has more aggressive programming for the "Premium Fuel" mode for the 175HP rating. (great upgrade for other 2.3 turbo engines.)
Remainder of engine was EXACTLY the same as the other models. Camshafts, cylinder heads, blocks, cranks ARE the SAME! No special SVO only camshafts or cylinder heads.
1985-1/2 saw major updates across the board for all Turbo equipped Fords.
The intake manifold was changed from the inline 4 port style (more restrictive) to the square 4 port style.
The turbocharger was now water cooled but still the same T3 Super 60 series. This is an excellent turbo for street-strip performance up 350HP. The exhaust side was still the .63AR ratio for 5-speed vehicles and .48AR ratio for automatic equipped vehicles to improve boost response. Note: it has always been written that the 85-1/2 SVO was equipped with the .48AR ratio exhaust but on every one I have owned (7 of them) and all I have worked on (over 100) they all had the .63AR ratio exhaust. The .48AR ratio exhaust limits the top end horsepower by at least 25-30hp. It will choke the exhaust as the RPM gets above 5200rpm. Boost was limited to 12psi in premium fuel mode and 10psi in regular fuel mode.
More aggressive 1984 SVO style computer and programming was used in all vehicles except the SVO. The 1985-1/2 engines are rated at 175HP (boost was 12psi) with the SVO coming in at 205HP (boost was 14psi). The SVO computer to have is coded "PE". This is the best computer to use for performance applications. (the 86 SVO used the same computer but was rated at 200HP with 14psi boost. Believed this drop was due to climate changes during the dyno testing).
The Vein meter in all vehicles except the SVO's was the same. SVO's recieved the larger 3" diameter vein meters. Excellent upgrade for max HP for all vehicles.
The exhaust manifold was changed to a larger port outlet. Referred to as the E6 manifold this is the best to use short of installing a stainless steel header.
All major engine components, camshafts, blocks, cylinder heads, pistons, rods, crankshafts are all the same for all 1983 to 1986 engines.
1986 saw no changed to the TurboCoupe, Mekur or SVO components. Engines were rated at 175HP for all but the SVO which was 200HP.
1987-88 Thunderbird Turbocoupe had major design differences. This engine was rated at 190HP with 5-speed and 175HP with automatic. This was the final evolution of the 2.3 turbo engine from Ford with changes made to offer the best driveability and all around performance with minimal compromises. Excellent engine and 5-speed to use in street rods and engine swaps as a complete system.
The turbocharger was a water cooled IHI small diameter turbo with a reduced exhaust AR ratio. Used for quicker boost response and driveability improvements.
A Intercooler was added with twin scoops in the hood feeding it. This intercooler is larger than the SVO intercooler and a mild upgrade for SVO's. Horsepower add is minimal however.
Computer and Vein meter are different from all previous turbo engines and will not directly interchange without re-wiring the connectors to match. Vein meter is larger diameter for better airflow across the RPM range.
Intake manifold is still the square 4 port design but the upper section is lower in height for a lower profile hood. The valve cover is clearanced for the intake to fit. This intake offers the best upper rpm performance and HP without modifications.
The exhaust manifold is different to match up to the IHI turbocharger.
The other major engine components are the same as previous years.
A quick ID 2.0 EAO (Pinto) engine vs 2.3 Lima engine guide.
Here are a few easy ways to find out which one you have.
The engine blocks:
A 2.0 EAO (Pinto) engine block with a cylinder head. (note how close that the distributor, and oil filter is to the front of the block)
A 2.3 Lima engine with a cylinder head (note how much the distributor, and oil filter are away from the front of the block, as compaired to the 2.0 EAO (Pinto) engine above).
The cylinder heads:
A 2.0 EAO (Pinto) cylinder head. (note the 3 cam bearings/towers, and the spray bar for oiling the rocker arms)
A 2.3 Lima cylinder head. (note the 4 cam bearings/towers, and no spray bar. The cam is drilled to oil the rocker arms)